Derek Chauvin Trial Live Updates: Medical Experts Take the Stand


Dr. Martin J. Tobin, a world famend professional on respiratory, was a key witness for the prosecution Thursday when he testified that George Floyd “died from a low stage of oxygen and this brought on injury to his mind that we see and it additionally brought on a P.E.A. arrhythmia that brought on his coronary heart to cease.”

The testimony was an try to discredit protection arguments that Mr. Floyd’s drug use contributed to his dying. Utilizing video from the arrest, Dr. Tobin described how Derek Chauvin’s knees on Mr. Floyd’s neck and facet and his maintain on Mr. Floyd’s arms prevented Mr. Floyd from having the ability to breathe. He additionally added, “He’s jammed down towards the road, and so the road is enjoying a significant position in stopping him from increasing his chest.”

He additionally confirmed two images of Mr. Floyd’s finger and knuckles digging into the road and the police automotive’s tire. “To most individuals this doesn’t look terribly important. However to a physiologist that is terribly important as a result of this tells you that he has used up his sources and he’s now actually making an attempt to breathe together with his fingers and knuckles,” including that he was “utilizing his fingers and his knuckles towards the road to attempt to crank up the appropriate facet of his chest. That is his solely strategy to attempt to and get air into the appropriate lung.”

The decide notes, after a non-public dialog with legal professionals for either side, that the jurors shouldn’t have to the touch their necks, because the physician is doing in an effort to describe what occurred to George Floyd. It appears seemingly that Derek Chauvin’s lawyer requested that instruction.

I ponder if Derek Chauvin’s lawyer senses that doing what the physician says might make the jurors sympathize extra with what George Floyd went via.

Dr. Martin J. Tobin has defined that George Floyd’s vocalizations have been actually essential. From the opening assertion by the prosecution: “You’ll hear his closing phrases when he says ‘I can’t breathe.’ Earlier than that point, you’ll hear his voice get heavier. You’ll hear his phrases additional aside. You will note that his respiration will get shallower and shallower and eventually stops when he speaks his final phrases, “I can’t breathe.”

Dr. Martin J. Tobin is exhibiting us how one can look at our necks together with his palms. Don’t learn about you all, but it surely’s form of exhausting for me to the touch my neck. I get form of freaked out. I ponder if jurors are doing it and if that helps them higher perceive what George Floyd went via.

Because the trial nears a section the place George Floyd’s reason for dying will take middle stage, we talked with a number of forensic pathologists uninvolved within the case to clarify a few of the phrases used within the proceedings, how they decide the trigger and method of dying and the way this pertains to the case. Here’s what we realized.

Numerous the dialogue on this case has been about Derek Chauvin’s knee on George Floyd’s neck. However Dr. Martin J. Tobin appears to point {that a} knee on the again or the facet has an analogous impact by way of limiting Floyd’s skill to breathe.

Dr. Tobin offers a direct opinion on what brought on George Floyd to die: “Mr. Floyd died from a low stage of oxygen and this brought on injury to his mind.” He additionally stated that that low stage of oxygen “brought on his coronary heart to cease.” That is the primary direct testimony we’ve had that Floyd died from Derek Chauvin’s knee on his neck, again and facet.

It’s possible you’ll be listening to the phrase “P.E.A.” cardiac arrest — pulseless electrical exercise. It’s a sort of cardiac arrest that’s usually talked about when folks die whereas being restrained in a susceptible place. It’s completely different from different forms of cardiac arrest, resembling people who consequence from heart problems, and you may’t use a defibrillator to restart the guts in a P.E.A. arrest.

It’s actually fascinating that Dr. Tobin simply stated most of his testimony has been in medical malpractice instances and he’s by no means testified in a prison case earlier than — he can’t be considered as biased for or towards legislation enforcement.

After main Dr. Martin J. Tobin via his credentials, the state’s questioning will get to the central subject of the case: “I’m primarily concerned about respiratory,” he says.

Dr. Martin J. Tobin, a pulmonologist from the Chicago area, testifying on Thursday.
Credit score…Nonetheless picture, by way of Court docket TV

Dr. Martin J. Tobin, a pulmonologist and demanding care doctor from the Chicago space, was the primary witness prosecutors referred to as to the stand within the Derek Chauvin trial on Thursday.

When prosecutors requested if he had fashioned a medical opinion on what had brought on George Floyd’s dying, Dr. Tobin stated, “Mr. Floyd died from a low stage of oxygen, and this brought on injury to his mind that we see, and it additionally brought on a P.E.A. arrhythmia as a result of his coronary heart stopped,” referring to pulseless electrical exercise, or cardiac arrest.

The low stage of oxygen was brought on by “shallow respiratory,” he stated. Mr. Floyd’s susceptible place and being handcuffed and Mr. Chauvin’s knee on his neck and again, he stated, contributed to the shallow respiratory.

Dr. Tobin added that the place by which Mr. Floyd was handcuffed, with the power of the officers compounding with the asphalt avenue, finally prevented him from having the ability to breathe absolutely.

“It’s how {the handcuffs} are being held, how they’re being pushed, the place they’re being pushed that absolutely intrude with central options of how we breathe,” he stated.

Mr. Chauvin’s knee positioned on the left facet of his chest would have restricted the quantity of air having the ability to enter the left lung, Dr. Tobin stated, as if “a surgeon had gone in and eliminated the lung,” he stated.

Dr. Tobin attended medical college at College School Dublin and is an professional in acute respiratory failure, mechanical air flow and neuromuscular management of respiratory.

He’s licensed by the American Board of Inner Medication and the American Board of Inner Medication Subspecialty Pulmonary Illness.

Within the prosecution’s opening assertion, Jerry Blackwell stated of George Floyd: “You’ll study he’s pancaked with a tough pavement beneath him and Mr. Chauvin on high of him. To be able to breathe, you must have room for the lungs to broaden out and in. And also you’ll see Mr. Floyd doing his greatest to form of crank his proper shoulder, having to elevate up his weight and Mr. Chauvin’s weight on high of him to get a breath.”

That is seemingly what Dr. Tobin will go over immediately. He has simply stated that his research of respiratory are “extra within the realm of math and physics” than medication.

The explanation they’re going via Dr. Martin J. Tobin’s credentials so extensively is as a result of the prosecution has to do all that it will probably to bolster his experience with the jury. So we’ll be listening to these lengthy bios from the entire professional witnesses.

At this time the state’s case strikes into its third section – medical testimony regarding the reason for George Floyd’s dying. It’s prone to be much less emotional than the bystander testimony final week, and maybe much less definitive than police witnesses who stated Chauvin’s use-of-force was extreme. But it surely may very well be extra essential, as a result of reason for dying is essentially the most contested subject of the trial.

The primary witness immediately is Dr. Martin J. Tobin, a pulmonologist from the Chicago space.

He’s, in short, an professional on respiratory.

A prosecutor simply stated he plans to name the medical expert who carried out the post-mortem on George Floyd tomorrow. That may observe immediately’s testimony from varied medical consultants.

Kyree Wilson, 16, the student council vice president at North Community High School, said the witness accounts in the Derek Chauvin trial have been “kind of hard to sit through.”
Credit score…Joshua Rashaad McFadden for The New York Occasions

In Minneapolis, educators have grappled over the previous couple of weeks with how one can discuss with their college students concerning the trial of Derek Chauvin, the previous Minneapolis police officer charged with homicide in George Floyd’s dying.

Some lecturers have proven segments of the televised trial at school and used jury choice or witness testimony as a chance to discover the advanced problems with race, policing and the prison justice system. Others have cautiously given college students the prospect to ask questions and share their opinions. And college directors and counselors have scheduled speaking circles, the place kids can open up about how the trial has rekindled emotions of racial trauma and fears of potential unrest stirred by the sound of helicopters flying over town.

However the grownup nature of the televised homicide trial, marked by graphic movies and emotional eyewitness accounts, poses a problem for educators, at the same time as they are saying the courtroom proceedings are too essential to disregard.

“We’ve to interact even when we’re uncomfortable and we don’t have the solutions,” stated Kristi Ward, the principal for third via eighth graders at Lake Nokomis Group College in south Minneapolis.

At this time in courtroom we’ll be listening to from medical consultants who will testify about what killed George Floyd. We’ve been speaking with forensic pathologists and different medical doctors all week and the upshot is, it’s very difficult.

A still image of the inside of the police vehicle where George Floyd had been placed before his death.
Credit score…Nonetheless picture, by way of Court docket TV

The trial of Derek Chauvin will proceed on Thursday with a renewed give attention to George Floyd’s drug use, after a day of testimony that steered Mr. Floyd had medicine with him when he was arrested in Minneapolis final Might.

Mr. Floyd’s drug use has been a main focus of the protection of Mr. Chauvin, the previous police officer who’s charged with murdering Mr. Floyd.

On Wednesday, witnesses described the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension’s investigation into Mr. Floyd’s dying, explaining that drugs and tablet fragments discovered on the scene contained methamphetamine and fentanyl. The protection, led by the lawyer Eric J. Nelson, has steered that Mr. Floyd died from complications of drug use.

The jury additionally heard from a use-of-force professional who stated Mr. Chauvin used “deadly force” despite the fact that Mr. Floyd posed no quick risk to the officers. “He was within the susceptible place, he was handcuffed, he was not making an attempt to withstand, he was not making an attempt to assault the officers — kick, punch, or something of that nature,” stated the professional, Sgt. Jody Stiger, who works with the Inspector Normal’s Workplace for the Los Angeles Police Division.

Sergeant Stiger stated that Mr. Chauvin might have been justified if he had determined to make use of a Taser earlier within the arrest, when Mr. Floyd resisted as officers tried to place him at the back of a police cruiser. However as soon as Mr. Floyd was handcuffed and face down on the road, the power ought to have stopped, the sergeant stated. Mr. Chauvin saved his knee on Mr. Floyd for greater than 9 minutes.

The sergeant added that being in a susceptible place whereas handcuffed could make it tough to breathe, saying, “Whenever you add physique weight to that, it simply will increase the opportunity of dying.”

The latter half of Wednesday’s testimony, which centered on the Minnesota Bureau of Prison Apprehension’s investigation, appeared to point a shift away from questions on whether or not Mr. Chauvin violated police coverage and towards the difficulty of medication.

Greater than 20 witnesses have taken the stand for the prosecution, however the protection has to then name its witnesses, after which the trial can transfer into closing arguments. A verdict may still be weeks away.

Because the trial of Derek Chauvin continued on Wednesday, chalk drawings and signage memorializing George Floyd may very well be seen on streets and partitions of Minneapolis.

Forensic scientist Breahna Giles testified on Wednesday about pills found in the police cruiser.
Credit score…Nonetheless picture, by way of Court docket TV

A use-of-force professional referred to as by prosecutors testified on Wednesday that Derek Chauvin, the police officer charged with murdering George Floyd, used “lethal power” when it was acceptable to make use of none.

The professional, Sgt. Jody Stiger, who works with the Los Angeles Police Division Inspector Normal’s Workplace, additionally stated that Mr. Chauvin put Mr. Floyd susceptible to positional asphyxia, or a deprivation of oxygen. His testimony might corroborate one of many prosecution’s main assertions: That Mr. Floyd died from asphyxia as a result of Mr. Chauvin knelt on him for greater than 9 minutes.

Senior Particular Agent James D. Reyerson of the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension, whose company investigates police use of power, advised jurors concerning the bureau’s investigation into Mr. Floyd’s dying, and stated that Mr. Chauvin shouted “I ain’t do no medicine,” whereas he was handcuffed. Listed here are the highlights from Wednesday.

  • Sergeant Stiger testified that “no force should have been used” as soon as Mr. Floyd was subdued, handcuffed and facedown on the pavement. “He was within the susceptible place, he was handcuffed, he was not making an attempt to withstand, he was not making an attempt to assault the officers — kick, punch, or something of that nature,” Sergeant Stiger stated. The prosecution has argued that Mr. Chauvin’s power continued for much longer than essential; in all, Mr. Chauvin pinned Mr. Floyd together with his knee for about 9 and a half minutes.

  • Responding to questions from the protection, Sergeant Stiger stated that Mr. Floyd resisted arrest when the responding officers tried to place him at the back of a squad automotive. In that second, Mr. Chauvin would have been justified in utilizing a Taser, Sergeant Stiger stated. The protection has steered that individuals who don’t seem like harmful to officers can shortly pose a risk. The road of questioning seemed to be an try to determine that Mr. Floyd had been combative at first, and due to this fact might have grow to be so as soon as once more. Sergeant Stiger pushed back on the argument, saying that officers ought to use power that’s essential for what suspects are doing within the second, not what they may do later.

  • Requested to interpret footage from a police physique digital camera, Mr. Reyerson initially stated Mr. Floyd appeared to say, “I ate too many medicine.” However in later testimony, Mr Reyerson modified his evaluation and stated that Mr. Floyd had really shouted, “I ain’t do no medicine.” His revised judgment might chip away at Mr. Chauvin’s protection, which has tried to argue that Mr. Floyd died from issues of drug use, not the actions of Mr. Chauvin. A toxicology report discovered methamphetamine and fentanyl in Mr. Floyd’s system. Sergeant Stiger advised the jury that he couldn’t make out what Mr. Floyd stated in that second.

  • A lot of Wednesday’s proceedings focused on Mr. Floyd’s drug use. The jury heard testimony from McKenzie Anderson, a forensic scientist with the Minnesota Bureau of Prison Apprehension who processed the squad automotive that Mr. Floyd was briefly positioned in on the night time he died. An preliminary processing found no drugs in the vehicle, however throughout a second search requested by Mr. Chauvin’s protection crew in January, the crew found fragments of drugs. Decide Peter Cahill has referred to as the oversight “mind-boggling.” Ms. Anderson stated she was not in search of drugs through the preliminary search, and easily handed over them. In testing the fragments, Ms. Anderson stated a lab discovered D.N.A. that matched Mr. Floyd’s.

  • Breahna Giles, a forensic scientist with the Minnesota Bureau of Prison Apprehension, testified that a few of the drugs recovered on the scene have been examined and located to comprise methamphetamine and fentanyl. The drugs have been marked with letters and numbers that appeared to point that they have been pharmaceutical-grade Acetaminophen and Oxycodone, although illicit drugs are generally marked by drug sellers to offer the misunderstanding that they got here from a pharmacy.

A boarded-up bank building across the street from the Hennepin County Government Center, where the trial of Derek Chauvin is taking place.
Credit score…Jim Mone/Related Press

Halfway via the second week of the trial of Derek Chauvin, greater than 20 witnesses have already taken the stand for the state. Subsequent, the protection will current their witnesses, earlier than the trial strikes into closing arguments and, lastly, jury deliberation.

Witness testimony is predicted to final not less than via the top of subsequent week. On Friday, Judge Peter A. Cahill dismissed courtroom early, saying that the trial was forward of schedule.

Jury selection — eight days of intense questioning to potential jurors about their political biases and views on racism and policing — started on March 9. In the end, 12 jury members and two alternates have been chosen.

Each side delivered opening statements on March 29, which have been adopted by the prosecution calling their witnesses to the stand. Every witness is questioned by the state, then cross-examined by the protection. Questioning goes forwards and backwards between the state and the protection.

Either side submitted a listing of potential witnesses to the decide forward of the trial: The state submitted the names of 363 potential witnesses, and the defense listed 212, but it surely’s unclear what number of will really seem.

Closing arguments might come as quickly because the week after subsequent, then the jury will start deliberating. The jury can take so long as it must ship a verdict.

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How George Floyd Was Killed in Police Custody

The Occasions has reconstructed the dying of George Floyd on Might 25. Safety footage, witness movies and official paperwork present how a collection of actions by officers turned deadly. (This video accommodates scenes of graphic violence.)

It’s a Monday night in Minneapolis. Police reply to a name a couple of man who allegedly used a counterfeit $20 invoice to purchase cigarettes. Seventeen minutes later, the person they’re there to research lies immobile on the bottom, and is pronounced useless shortly after. The person was 46-year-old George Floyd, a bouncer initially from Houston who had misplaced his job at a restaurant when the coronavirus pandemic hit. Crowd: “No justice, no peace.” Floyd’s dying triggered main protests in Minneapolis, and sparked rage throughout the nation. One of many officers concerned, Derek Chauvin, has been arrested and charged with second-degree homicide. The opposite three officers have been charged with aiding and abetting homicide. The Occasions analyzed bystander movies, safety digital camera footage and police scanner audio, spoke to witnesses and consultants, and reviewed paperwork launched by the authorities to construct as complete an image as potential and higher perceive how George Floyd died in police custody. The occasions of Might 25 start right here. Floyd is sitting within the driver’s seat of this blue S.U.V. Throughout the road is a comfort retailer referred to as Cup Meals. Footage from this restaurant safety digital camera helps us perceive what occurs subsequent. Be aware that the timestamp on the digital camera is 24 minutes quick. At 7:57 p.m., two workers from Cup Meals confront Floyd and his companions about an alleged counterfeit invoice he simply used of their retailer to purchase cigarettes. They demand the cigarettes again however stroll away empty-handed. 4 minutes later, they name the police. In keeping with the 911 transcript, an worker says that Floyd used faux payments to purchase cigarettes, and that he’s “awfully drunk” and “not in charge of himself.” Quickly, the primary police automobile arrives on the scene. Officers Thomas Lane and J. Alexander Kueng step out of the automotive and strategy the blue S.U.V. Seconds later, Lane pulls his gun. We don’t know precisely why. He orders Floyd to place his palms on the wheel. Lane reholsters the gun, and after about 90 seconds of forwards and backwards, yanks Floyd out of the S.U.V. A person is filming the confrontation from a automotive parked behind them. The officers cuff Floyd’s palms behind his again. And Kueng walks him to the restaurant wall. “All proper, what’s your identify?” From the 911 transcript and the footage, we now know three essential info: First, that the police believed they have been responding to a person who was drunk and uncontrolled. However second, despite the fact that the police have been anticipating this case, we are able to see that Floyd has not acted violently. And third, that he appears to already be in misery. Six minutes into the arrest, the 2 officers transfer Floyd again to their automobile. Because the officers strategy their automotive, we are able to see Floyd fall to the bottom. In keeping with the prison complaints filed towards the officers, Floyd says he’s claustrophobic and refuses to enter the police automotive. Throughout the battle, Floyd seems to show his head to deal with the officers a number of occasions. In keeping with the complaints, he tells them he can’t breathe. 9 minutes into the arrest, the third and closing police automotive arrives on the scene. It’s carrying officers Tou Thao and Derek Chauvin. Each have earlier data of complaints introduced towards them. Thao was as soon as sued for throwing a person to the bottom and hitting him. Chauvin has been concerned in three police shootings, considered one of them deadly. Chauvin turns into concerned within the battle to get Floyd into the automotive. Safety digital camera footage from Cup Meals exhibits Kueng combating Floyd within the backseat whereas Thao watches. Chauvin pulls him via the again seat and onto the road. We don’t know why. Floyd is now mendacity on the pavement, face down. That’s when two witnesses start filming, nearly concurrently. The footage from the primary witness exhibits us that each one 4 officers at the moment are gathered round Floyd. It’s the primary second after we can clearly see that Floyd is face down on the bottom, with three officers making use of strain to his neck, torso and legs. At 8:20 p.m., we hear Floyd’s voice for the primary time. The video stops when Lane seems to inform the particular person filming to stroll away. “Get off to the sidewalk, please. One facet or the opposite, please.” The officers radio a Code 2, a name for non-emergency medical help, reporting an harm to Floyd’s mouth. Within the background, we are able to hear Floyd struggling. The decision is shortly upgraded to a Code 3, a name for emergency medical help. By now one other bystander, 17-year-old Darnella Frazier, is filming from a distinct angle. Her footage exhibits that regardless of requires medical assist, Chauvin retains Floyd pinned down for one more seven minutes. We are able to’t see whether or not Kueng and Lane are nonetheless making use of strain. Floyd: [gasping] Officer: “What would you like?” Bystander: “I’ve been —” Floyd: [gasping] Within the two movies, Floyd may be heard telling officers that he can’t breathe not less than 16 occasions in lower than 5 minutes. Bystander: “You having enjoyable?” However Chauvin by no means takes his knee off of Floyd, at the same time as his eyes shut and he seems to go unconscious. Bystander: “Bro.” In keeping with medical and policing consultants, these 4 law enforcement officials are committing a collection of actions that violate insurance policies, and on this case, flip deadly. They’ve saved Floyd mendacity face down, making use of strain for not less than 5 minutes. This mixed motion is probably going compressing his chest and making it not possible to breathe. Chauvin is pushing his knee into Floyd’s neck, a transfer banned by most police departments. Minneapolis Police Division coverage states an officer can solely do that if somebody is, quote, “actively resisting.” And despite the fact that the officers name for medical help, they take no motion to deal with Floyd on their very own whereas ready for the ambulance to reach. Officer: “Get again on the sidewalk.” In keeping with the complaints towards the officers, Lane asks him twice if they need to roll Floyd onto his facet. Chauvin says no. Twenty minutes into the arrest, an ambulance arrives on the scene. Bystander: “Get off of his neck!” Bystander: “He’s nonetheless on him?” The E.M.T.s verify Floyd’s pulse. Bystander: “Are you critical?” Chauvin retains his knee on Floyd’s neck for nearly one other entire minute, despite the fact that Floyd seems utterly unresponsive. He solely will get off as soon as the E.M.T.s inform him to. Chauvin saved his knee on Floyd’s neck for over eight minutes, based on our overview of the video proof. Floyd is loaded into the ambulance. The ambulance leaves the scene, presumably as a result of a crowd is forming. However the E.M.T.s name for added medical assist from the hearth division. However when the engine arrives, the officers give them, quote, “no clear information on Floyd or his whereabouts,” based on a hearth division incident report. This delays their skill to assist the paramedics. In the meantime, Floyd goes into cardiac arrest. It takes the engine 5 minutes to succeed in Floyd within the ambulance. He’s pronounced useless at a close-by hospital round 9:25 p.m. Preliminary autopsies carried out by the state and Floyd’s household each dominated his dying a murder. The broadly circulated arrest movies don’t paint your entire image of what occurred to George Floyd. Crowd: “Floyd! Floyd!” Further video and audio from the physique cameras of the important thing officers would reveal extra about why the battle started and the way it escalated. Town shortly fired all 4 officers. And Chauvin has been charged with second diploma homicide. Thomas Lane, J. Alexander Kueng and Tou Thao have been charged with aiding and abetting homicide. However outrage over George Floyd’s dying has solely unfold additional and additional throughout the USA.

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The Occasions has reconstructed the dying of George Floyd on Might 25. Safety footage, witness movies and official paperwork present how a collection of actions by officers turned deadly. (This video accommodates scenes of graphic violence.)

On Might 25, Minneapolis law enforcement officials arrested George Floyd, a 46-year-old Black man, after a comfort retailer worker referred to as 911 to report that Mr. Floyd had purchased cigarettes with a counterfeit $20 invoice. Seventeen minutes after the primary squad automotive arrived on the scene, Mr. Floyd was unconscious and pinned beneath three law enforcement officials, exhibiting no indicators of life.

By combining movies from bystanders and safety cameras, reviewing official paperwork and consulting consultants, The New York Times reconstructed in detail the minutes resulting in Mr. Floyd’s death. Our video exhibits officers taking a collection of actions that violated the insurance policies of the Minneapolis Police Division and turned deadly, leaving Mr. Floyd unable to breathe, at the same time as he and onlookers referred to as out for assist.

Patrons and employees at Urban Touch Barbers & Salon watch the trial of Derek Chauvin on televisions.
Credit score…Aaron Nesheim for The New York Occasions

The trial of Derek Chauvin within the dying of George Floyd is uncommon for a lot of causes: It’s being livestreamed from Minneapolis, attendance is severely restricted due to the coronavirus and the general public’s curiosity within the case might make this one of many highest-profile trials in current reminiscence.

The trial may be watched on nytimes.com, by way of a livestream offered by Court docket TV, which can be airing the trial in full. Witness testimony and legal professionals’ shows of proof ought to final a number of weeks earlier than the jury begins to deliberate over the decision.

Among the many folks allowed within the courtroom, on the 18th ground of the Hennepin County Authorities Heart, are: the decide, jurors, witnesses, courtroom employees, legal professionals, Mr. Chauvin and solely a handful of spectators.

The decide, Peter A. Cahill, wrote in an order on March 1 that just one member of Mr. Floyd’s household and one member of Mr. Chauvin’s household can be allowed within the room at any time. Two seats are reserved for reporters, and varied journalists, together with from The New York Occasions, are rotating all through the trial.

The legal professionals, spectators, jurors and witnesses are required to put on masks when they aren’t talking. Spectators are prohibited from having any seen photos, logos, letters or numbers on their masks or clothes, based on Decide Cahill’s order.



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